Relation to social mobility

Smoking cigarettes increases the chances of morbidity, resulting in high costs related to medications and treatment, as well as increased absence from work.



end of junior high and high school


Kiiskinen, Vartiainen, Puska & Pekurinen (2002). “Smoking-related costs among 25 to 59 year-old males in a 19-year individual follow-up”, National Library of Medicine.

Campbell et al. (2008). “An informal school-based peer-led intervention for smoking prevention in adolescence (ASSIST): a cluster randomized trial”, National Library of Medicine.

Thomas, McLellan & Perera (2013). “School-based programs for preventing smoking”, National Library of Medicine.

What to Influence

Ways to Influence

Post-primary ages

end of junior high through high school

Cessation and prevention of smoking

end of junior high through high school

Recruitment of opinion shapers, raising awareness, adapted cognitive behavioral therapy programs, school policy