Future Outlook

A process of motivation and self-regulation in which the individual specifies his/her aspirations, expectations, and values in all areas of life. This is in support of a list of goals and objectives which guide him/her in forming an action plan for various long- and short-term timeframes, and which constitute indicators with which to measure progress. In turn, this allows the person to foresee conflicts between different life roles and to cope with them with minimal compromise.
Advancing factor

Relation to social mobility

The transition period from adolescence to adulthood (18-25) is a critical period that has an impact on the continued development and future of the individual, during which he/she formulates a personal identity that will be expressed in meaningful professional and personal choices. One of the characteristics of young people in Israel is their fear of failure to integrate their different life roles, which often leads to a lowering of their employment aspirations. The process of goal-setting and long-term planning allows young people to deal with these concerns in the best way possible, with the least need for compromise, as well as to reconcile the conflicts that might rise down the road. Studies demonstrate that young people who have engaged in self-exploration, goal setting, and long-term planning are able to cope better with the transition from school to employment and family, especially when it comes to young people who may face conflicts between different life roles. A meta-analysis of studies on career interventions pointed to a future outlook as a key feature of effective planning. The future outlook factor also derives from the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) data analysis. This factor, which explains the importance of the variable "driver's license" in the distinction between "poverty" and "everything else", especially in the ultra-Orthodox sector.


Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current directions in psychological science, 15(5), 265-268 Epton, T., Currie, S., & Armitage, C. J. (2017). Unique effects of setting goals on behavior change: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 85(12), 1182 West, R. L., & Yassuda, M. S. (2004). Aging and memory control beliefs: Performance in relation to goal setting and memory self-evaluation. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 59(2), P56-P65 Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2019). The development of goal setting theory: A half century retrospective. Motivation Science, 5(2), 93 Brown, S. D, & Crane-Ryan, N. E (2000). Four (or five) session and a cloud of dust: Old assumptions and new observations about career counsling. In S. D. Brown & R. W Lent (Eds)., Handbook of Counseling Psychology (pp. 740-766). New York, NY: Wiley John & Sons Amstad, F. T., Meier, L. L., Fasel, U., Elfering, A., & Semmer, N. K. (2011). A meta-analysis of work–family conflict and various outcomes with a special emphasis on cross-domain versus matching-domain relations. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16, 151–169 Hoobler, J. M., Hu, J., & Wilson, M. S. (2010). Do work-ers who experience conflict between the work and family domains hit a “glass ceiling?” A meta-analytic examination. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 481–494

Desirable achievements

Ages 18-25

Key population

  • women
  • Religious sector
  • Arab sector
In collectivist populations, values and social norms increase the anxiety of young people and the challenge for adults to integrate their life different roles and aspects of identity (work, family, parenting relationships, etc.). Studies have found that young adults' concerns about future conflicts between work and family roles cause them to lower professional or family aspirations. It has also been found that conflicts between different life roles in adulthood lead to negative outcomes such as poor physical and mental health, stress, underperformance at work, and general dissatisfaction. Setting goals and long-term planning helps address these concerns and to cope with them in later stages.