Social skills

Communication skills, empathy, caring, the ability to share, willingness to cooperate effectively with others, creation and fostering of relationships, and avoiding unacceptable social responses.

Relation to social mobility

Development of social skills in childhood and adolescence positively affect a variety of outcomes in adulthood, such as employment, income, and education



all ages


Crowley, Greenberg & Jones (2015). “Early Social-Emotional Functioning and Public Health: The Relationship between Kindergarten Social Competence and Future Wellness”, American Journal of Public Health.

Rebecca & Taylor et al. (2017). “Promoting Positive Youth Development Through School-Based Social and Emotional Learning Interventions: A Meta-Analysis of Follow-Up Effects”, Child Development.

Guralnick (1999), “Sequential Analysis of the Social Play of Young Children with Mild Developmental Delays”, Journal of Young Intervention.

Howes, Phillipsen & Peisner-Feinberg (2000). “The Consistency of Perceived Teacher–Child Relationships between Preschool and Kindergarten”. Journal of School Psychology.

What to Influence

Ways to Influence

Birth to six

early infancy (0-3)

Identifying and understanding an individual's emotions, distinguishing among emotions, thoughts, and behavior, sharing attention
distinguishing among emotions
thoughts and behavior
shared attention

Late Infancy (3-6)

Emotional regulation
expression of emotions
identifying emotions and thoughts of others (TOM)

early infancy (0-3)

Quality of parent-child interaction, mediation of social interactions

Late Infancy (3-6)

Quality of parent-child interaction, mediation of social interactions

Elementary school ages

elementary school

Considering others’ point of view
internalizing the concepts of reciprocity and fairness
beginning of cooperation skills
interacting with others

elementary school

The quality of relationships with significant adults, the quality of the emotional and academic relationship between student and teacher, characteristics of relationships with peers, management of the class, and dealing with behavioral difficulties.

Post-primary ages

Junior high and high school

problem solving
conflict resolution

Junior high and high school

Quantity, quality, and variety of social experiences with peer group and authority figures. Cultivation of knowledge and tools for dealing with unfamiliar social situations.