junior high and high school
preschool and early elementary school
Dweck (2007). “The Perils and Promises of Praise”.
Dweck, Paunesku & Claro (2016). “Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement”, PNAS.
Blackwell, Trzesniewski & Dweck (2007). “Implicit Theories of Intelligence Predict Achievement across an Adolescent Transition: A Longitudinal Study and an Intervention”, Child Development.
Mueller & Dweck (1998). “Praise for intelligence can undermine children’s motivation and performance”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Provide feedback based on the child's changing behavior and the efforts he/she invests, rather than in relation to character traits
We must continue to rely on feedback processes between the adolescent and significant adult figures, such as teachers. In addition, it is important to emphasize the individual’s ability to change and improve by providing reliable and convincing examples that demonstrate this.