Self-knowledge: the individual’s awareness of his/her own values, tendencies, skills, abilities, strengths and weaknesses Knowledge about the occupational world: the individual’s acquaintance with the world of work (different professions and their characteristics, such as compensation, work environment, and required skills and abilities) and with the requirements for different careers and the ways to meet them.
Advancing factor

Relation to social mobility

Self-knowledge: the individual's self-knowledge allows him/her to modify the hierarchy of activities in his/her life. This enables him/her to plan a future that stems from authentic expression of self-perception, and not of external narratives and stereotypes. Knowledge of the occupational world: familiarity with the world of work and employment, as well as general knowledge and abilities relating to conduct in adulthood, allow ypre-adults to adopt an appropriate, realistic, and attainable plan for themselves.


Whiston, S. C., & Cinamon, R. G. (2015). The Work-Family Interface: Integrating Research and Career Counseling Practice. The Career Development Quarterly, 63(1), 44-56 Jepsen, D. A., & Sheu, H. (2003). General job satisfaction from a developmental perspective: Exploring choice-job matches at two career stages. Career Development Quarterly, 52, 162–179 Ferrari, L., Nota, L., & Soresi, S. (2012). Evaluation of an intervention to foster time perspective and career decidedness in a group of Italian adolescents. Career Development Quarterly, 60, 82–96 Lapan, R. T., & Kosciulek, J. F. (2001). Toward a community career system program evaluation framework. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79, 3–15

Desirable achievements

Ages 18-25
  • Knowledge-seeking capabilities

    The individual acquires knowledge-seeking capabilities regarding different directions of education/training/employment, and ways to realize them.

    Intervention examples

  • Relevant knowledge

    The individual acquires knowledge about various professions, possible employment directions, their requirements, rights, financial conduct, etc.

    Intervention examples

  • Self-acquaintance & self-validation

    The individual gains awareness of his/her values, tendencies, aspirations and goals, affirms them and identifies possible conflicts therein.

    Intervention examples

  • self-presentation capabilities

    The individual acquires self-presentation capabilities (on resumes, virtual networks, job interviews, etc.)

    Intervention examples

Key population

  • Individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds
One of the barriers facing individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds is the lack of bridging and bonding social capital, which serves as a significant channel for acquiring relevant knowledge for optimal future planning.